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General Concepts for Directions to Proceed with the

21st Century Biotechnology Group

At the heart of JVP's Biotech Group is the ultimate mission of life extension without degradation of life quality.Ever since man first appreciated the horror and finality of individual death, he has tried to invent ways of overcoming this all-encompassing and overwhelming problem. Of all recorded time, dating back at least 10,000 years, virtually every culture has attempted to insure itself a state of immortality. From early mythology and legend, to cultures the world over, to the formation of more formalized religions, each group had to have a way of escaping oblivion.Unfortunately, due to the political consequences of organized religion and their intolerance of others who were of unlike mind, any significant technological progress was greatly suppressed. Since the discovery of the natural laws necessary to create technology must be derived from a non-mystical, rational scientific method, this intellectual and experimental approach was in direct conflict with the teachings by those in control. At the heart of these teachings was and still is the unquestioning acceptance on "faith" of their view of the world. Thus the scientific method and its necessary conclusions were perceived as a great threat to their political control. Scientific discoveries generally occurred in spite of not with the help of controlling competing ideologies.It was not until 20th Century physics was applied to biology and medicine did we see any real way of developing the technology necessary to achieve our ultimate goal. This application has resulted in an exponential increase in our knowledge base. After 10,000 years of human history, the true biophysical mechanisms that are necessary for the human animal to function are finally yielding their long held secrets.Only when we have a complete understanding of the processes can we engineer the technology necessary to effect a real change in our maximum life expectancy. All attempts to do this in the past have only rectangularized the curve, (This term relates to a graph that shows the relationship between any given population in numbers of individuals on the "y" axis verses time in years on the "x" axis. Thus, the greater the number of people still alive at any given time, the more rectangular the curve of the graph).We are now finally on the threshold of controlling our destiny in this area of medicine, or more properly Biomedical Engineering. The tools we need to accomplish this feat can be placed in three broad categories:

1. The determination of both the structural and functional significance of the entire sequence of our human genome. This means not only determining the "letters and words" of the genome but how the "words" are used to compose "sentences, paragraphs and chapters." This means answering the following four questions:

    What proteins are encoded from the transcription of the base pairs of the DNA sequences that make up every gene?What are their associated control genes, and feedback mechanisms?What is the function of each protein and how is it transported to and from the site of synthesis?Where and how each protein is stored and in what quantities and under what conditions?

    The financial community has finally embrace biotech companies that have made great progress in this field. In an historic announcement at the White House comparable in significance to man’s first landing on the moon, Celera Genomics (CRA, NYSE) and scientists from the publicly financed Human Genome Project made history on Monday, June 26, 2000 by announcing they had separately almost finished rough drafts of the sequence of 3.1 billion chemical pairs that form the human book of life. This came years before the public Human Genome Project had any hope of completing this first draft of the genome and was only accomplished by the brilliant innovations made by Tim Hunkepiller and Craig Venter from the private sector.

2. Tissue engineering and the application of the pleuripotent stem cell (PSC). The key to our control of human life span and quality of life initially lies in our ability to engineer the regeneration of damaged or worn out cells, tissues and body parts. Contrary to the dogma taught in the world’s medical schools over the past century, we now know that every cell in our body, no matter how highly specialized, given the right conditions, can be reprogrammed to become any other type of cell. The process of replacement of a given cell type occurs naturally to a very limited extent in most of our organ systems, most recently now demonstrated in our brains.

Since the PSC represents an embryonic like non-committed cell, it can be enlisted to become whatever type of cell is needed under a given circumstance. Having a supply of individualized PSC made from the patient’s own cells (so that there would be no possibility of rejection), would represent a universal all purpose repair kit for any number of medical conditions which result in damaged or non-functioning organ systems. The technology to do this, without the use of any embryo or egg source is now available within the technologies held by our Biotechnology Group.

Quantification and localization of memory, consciousness and awareness of self.

3. As the third and final step to achieving indefinite lifespan, we need to have the option to transfer our mind and memory to a structure that is not vulnerable to deliberate or accidental trauma, man made or natural. Marvin Minski, founder of Artificial Intelligence at MIT, believes this is possible once we are able to electrically control the central neural circuitry that makes up memory.Even though our understanding of the neural networks that make up a single stored memory, for example, is relatively primitive we have just recently discovered that in nature, some new neurons are formed to substitute and replace others that have ceased functioning normally. This was in the hippocampus where it is believed certain types of memories reside. This replacement or substitution mechanism may be a bridge mechanism that could be employed to engineer a transitional storage of memory outside of the original circuits location. Anatomical localization of thought in various locations in the human brain has already been discovered at UCLA’s Institute for Brain Mapping utilizing a modified fast PET scan. Other research facilities throughout the country have seen similar findings.Throughout modern history, biologists who aligned themselves with the spiritualists believed that we could never explain or deduce any part of what made up living organisms. They were called the Vitalists. When the chemical structure of urea (a biochemical found in urine) was discovered, one of the first discoveries of the biochemicals that make up living organisms, their position moved back a step. They said, "well maybe you can discover simple molecules of life, but you will never be able to understand the complex ones, like those responsible for inheritance as an example." Time after time they have been forced to retreat from their previous positions for several hundred years. Their last bastion of retreat is their position that "well, maybe you can discover all the body functioning mechanism of life, but you will never explain the mind, memory and thought in biophysical and biochemical terms."

The time for the extinction of the Vitalist position is close at hand.

These three critical tools will enable us to reach our goal of not only extending high quality human life, but we will be able to improve on it, and offer the option of creating the proverbial BIONIC PERSON!

Tool #1:

With this tool or investigative process, we will be able to determine which genes control the aging process and which do not. Since there are an estimated 100,000+ genes in the human genome, how do we find which ones are responsible for determining the length of our lifespan? The approach that will have the best chance of succeeding is to use an animal of much shorter lifespan than our own. We will select individuals for breeding who exhibit particularly long life spans, until their offspring’s lifespan is 50 to 100% greater than it would have been naturally. This information is then used as a template to find corresponding genes in the human chromosomes. Fortunately, many animals and even invertebrates have base pair sequences for a majority of their genes that are nearly identical to the human genome. This will give us a guided pathway to the cluster of aging genes.This may sound like science fiction, but this technology already exists, and it is among the technologies available to our Biotech Group.As a dramatic example of alteration of genetic components to control or alter lifespan, old and aging cells can be made into young rejuvenated cells by putting back the tips of their chromosomes that have degenerated away with age. When you do this to a cell from an old animal, activating an enzyme called telomerase (rebuilds the telemeres at the very ends of each chromosome), you transform old cells into cells that have all the characteristics of cells found in a young adult. This technology is also available to our Biotech Group.Another monumental breakthrough discovery addressing the issue of whether it is possible to re-set the clock of senescent cells was confirmed in a recent AAAS Science publication in June of this year. In this study, Michael West of Advanced Cell Technologies was able to show that by placing an old senescent cell’s nucleus into a young enucleated egg cell, the new micro-environment re-set the genome of the old cell and transformed it into a very young new cell.Its age is measured by the number of times it can divide to form new "daughter" cells before it becomes incapable of division and dies. Depending on the cell type, most young new cells in fetal or new born animals can divide (as measured in tissue culture) over a hundred times before becoming senescent. But old aging cells, shortly before they die, can only divide a few more times before reaching their limit, often called "Hayflick’s limit. And, as we would have predicted, these transformed cells also experienced a lengthening of their telemeres comparable to those of fetal animals instead of those profoundly shortened telemeres seen in these very same nuclei when they existed in their pre-transplanted form.Much of the philosophy and technological developments described above, have come from the doctors and scientists participating in the Gerontological Research Group in Los Angeles. Gerontological Research, co-founded in 1992 by Steven M. Kaye, MD and Stephen Coles, MD, PhD., has become a "Rand Corporation" think tank for life extension research and development.The JVP Venture Fund Biotechnology Group has full access to the world’s most advanced thinking, and visionary medical scientists.

With the vast resource of intellectual property and individuals at our disposal, a stable funding mechanism and the proper corporate behavior and structure, the 21st Century will see an incredible revolution in the quality and length of individual human life that surpasses anything ever experienced by mankind, except in his hopes and dreams.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION on any JVP service, domestic or international, or to request a copy of a JVP document or paper, or to correspond with Dr. Kaye, please contact our Corporate Office via Email at: general.info@jvp.com

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